Calculating frost penetration in soils

The analysis during a period of frost penetration shows coherent behavior of the soil reflectivity. The use of "degree-days of freezing" as a guide in calculating frost depth for a given area illustrates the strong influence air temperature has on soil temperature. Even at temperatures well below the freezing point of bulk water, some unfrozen water may remain in the soil. When silts, sands or gravels are contaminated with clay, however, heaving ability is usually much enhanced and becomes less predictable. In a fine-grained moist soil a peculiar phenomenon occurs. The maximum seasonal frost penetration depth predicted by EICM agreed to within 3 cm of the maximum depth inferred from the temperature and resistivity profiles.
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CBD-26. Ground Freezing and Frost Heaving

Based on the analyses conducted, one may conclude that seasonal maximum frost penetration depth can be reliably estimated by a relationship to AFDI, as long as a pavement-specific relationship is derived using meteorological data that account for region-specific weather dynamics. Frozen soil may consists of soil, air, unfrozen water, and ice. The methodology behind historic maps of frost penetration was unknown and did not appear to incorporate the influence of elevation, a key determinant in air temperatures affecting pavement surface cooling. Ground Freezing and Frost Heaving. What do scientists look for in the data?
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Canadian Geotechnical Journal - 34(3) - PDF

It has been found that all the water in soil does not freeze at the same temperature. Typical values of thermal, hydraulic, and other material properties were used for the pavement material inputs to EICM. Some equations and variables in this section are expressed in English units only due to their source. A site-specific correlation to freezing degree index, based on local climatic and moisture conditions, may prove more useful. Freezing degree days fdd at ground surface are a common measure of freezing depth estimation used by scientists. These guidelines were verified based on results from District 2 Miller et al.
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In other cases, however, the ground heaves and the resultant displacement of the soil may cause considerable damage. The Frost Tube consists of a piece of mm clear plastic tubing inner tube marked in 5 cm increments holding colored water that sits inside a 10 mm outer diameter radiant heat tube middle tube sealed on the bottom. However if below freezing air temperatures persist and there is no snow cover, near surface soil depth freezing could happen quickly in the top cm of soil early in the winter depending on soil water content and ambient air temperatures. For IEEE to continue sending you helpful information on our products and services, please consent to our updated Privacy Policy. AFDI is therefore a stable metric for use in frost depth predictions.
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